Diarrhea, or diarrhea, is a pathological condition manifested by frequent (more than 3 times a day) watery stools, which are often accompanied by painful urge and anal incontinence. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), diarrhea, or rather dehydration and malnutrition caused by it, is one of the causes of death in children under 5 years of age.
The main symptoms of diarrhea are frequent bowel movements and loose stools. If defecation occurs more than three times a day, but the stool is formalized, there is no talk of diarrhea.
Often, defecation is accompanied by imperative urges (sudden uncontrollable urge to visit the toilet), abdominal pain, and rumbling.
With diarrhea caused by an infection, the picture is complemented by vomiting, high fever, signs of general intoxication, and sometimes blood or mucus in the stool.
Diarrhea, which is caused by indigestion, is usually accompanied by signs of maladsorption – a violation of the absorption of vital substances. The patient loses weight and develops anemia. In summary, we can say that the symptoms accompanying diarrhea primarily depend on the disease that caused this syndrome.
Treatment for diarrhea will depend on the underlying condition. For infectious diarrhea, antibacterial and antiparasitic agents are prescribed. It is imperative to compensate for dehydration – it is this that becomes the cause of death in case of intestinal infection. In addition, for infectious diarrhea, sorbents are prescribed – these funds absorb toxins secreted by the infectious agent and dead intestinal cells. After the end of the acute period, preparations are recommended to restore normal microflora: probiotics (live “beneficial” microbes), prebiotics (substances that promote the reproduction of normal microflora) and synbiotics (means combining probiotics and prebiotics).
For diarrhea caused by a failure in digestion, enzyme preparations are recommended, for violations of motility – prokinetics (itomed). In the case of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, anti-inflammatory, sometimes cytostatics and immunosuppressants are prescribed.
In chronic diarrhea caused by inflammatory diseases, as well as in irritable bowel syndrome, gastroprotective agents (rebamipide) are recommended to accelerate the recovery of the intestinal mucosa.
If the disease is caused by a pathology of other organs and systems, drugs are prescribed to treat the underlying disease and supplement this therapy with drugs to normalize intestinal motility.
Diet is very important in the treatment of diarrhea. The dietary table directly depends on the cause of the syndrome. Most often, Pevzner’s diet number 4 is recommended – it is indicated for infectious bowel diseases. If diarrhea is caused by a pathology of the pancreas, Table 5a is prescribed, for diseases of the gallbladder – Table 5. In cases where diarrhea is caused by intolerance to a particular product, it may be sufficient to exclude only this product from the diet (lactose-free, gluten-free diet).